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Name Acetonitrile
synonym methyl cyanide
Chinese Name 乙腈
Type 脂肪族化合物
CAS No 75-05-8
Physical Properties M 41.1, b 81.6℃, d25 0.77683, nD25 1.3441, n25 1.34163.
Method for Purification Commercial acetonitrile is a by-product of the reaction of propylene and ammonia to acrylonitrile. The following procedure that significantly reduces the levels of acrylonitrile, allyl alcohol, acetone and *benzene was used by Kiesel [Anal Chem 52 2230 1988]. Methanol (300mL) is added to 3 L of acetonitrile fractionated at high reflux ratio until the boiling temperature rises from 64℃ to 80℃ , and the distillate becomes optically clear down to λ = 240nm. Add sodium hydride (1g) free from paraffin, to the liquid, reflux for 10minutes, and then distil rapidly until about 100mL of residue remains. Immediately pass the distillate through a column of acidic alumina, discarding the first 150mL of percolate. Add 5g of CaH2 and distil the first 50mL at a high reflux ratio. Discard this fraction, and collect the following main fraction. The best way of detecting impurities is by gas chromatography.
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